そもそものPISA(the Programme for International Student Assessment)の目的は

How well are young adults prepared to meet the challenges of the future? Are they able to analyse, reason and communicate their ideas effectively?  Do they have the capacity to continue learning throughout life?  

(Measuring student knowledge and skills A new framework of assessment. OECD, 1999. P7) 


ところで「道具を相互作用的に用いる」コンピテンシーがPISAにおいては特に強く取り上げられ、さらに現在の日本でも強調されすぎているという問題が指摘されている (松本、2011年)。DeSeCoの報告書(2005年)にも、以下のようにPISAとの関連が「Using Tools Interactively」において強調されている。

Competency Category 1: Using Tools Interactively

A. The ability to use language, symbols and text interactively

Reading literacy and mathematical literacy in PISA.

B. The ability to use knowledge and information interactively

Using knowledge and information interactively requires individuals to:

●Recognise and determine what is not known;

●Identify, locate and access appropriate information sources (including assembling knowledge and information in cyberspace);

●Evaluate the quality, appropriateness and value of that information, as well as its sources; 

●Organise knowledge and information.

An illustration of this key competency is scientific literacy, as developed in the framework for the 2006 PISA survey.This seeks to explore the degree to which students are willing to engage in and interact with scientific enquiry, including how interested they are in scientific questions, rather than just their ability to exercise cognitive skills as required.

C. The ability to use technology interactively

Interactive use of technology requires an awareness of new ways in which individuals can use technologies in their daily lives. Information and communication technology has the potential to transform the way people work together access information and interact with others. 


The assessment, which focuses on reading, mathematics, science and problem-solving, does not just ascertain whether students can reproduce what they have learned; it also examines how well they can extrapolate from what they have learned and apply that knowledge in unfamiliar settings, both in and outside of school. This approach reflects the fact that modern societies reward individuals not for what they know, but for what they can do with what they know.(PISA2012 Results in Focus, p3)。


Thus, while it does assess students’knowledge, PISA also examines their ability to reflect, and to apply their knowledge and experience to real-life issues. For example, in order to understand and evaluate scientific advice on food safety an adult would need not only to know some basic facts about the composition of nutrients, but also to be able to apply that information. The term “literacy”is used to encapsulate this broader concept of knowledge and skills, and the PISA assessment aims to determine the extent to which 15-year-old students can activate various cognitive processes that would enable them to make effective use of the reading, mathematical and scientific knowledge and skills they have acquired throughout their schooling and related learning experiences up to that point.(PISA2009 Assessment Framework Key competencies in reading, mathematics and science, p9)


Reading literacy includes a wide range of cognitive competencies, from basic decoding, to knowledge of words, grammar and larger linguistic and textual structures and features, to knowledge about the world. It also includes metacognitive competencies: the awareness of and ability to use a variety of appropriate strategies when processing texts. Metacognitive competencies are activated when readers think about, monitor and adjust their reading activity for a particular goal. (PISA2009 Assessment Framework Key competencies in reading, mathematics and science, p23)


・This framework describes and illustrates the PISA mathematics assessment. The term mathematical literacy is used to highlight that the PISA mathematics assessment is concerned with the reproduction of mathematical knowledge and in addition, in solving the PISA assessment tasks, students are typically required to extrapolate from what they have learned in school and to apply mathematical knowledge to authentic problems situated in a variety of contexts. The mathematical processes needed to do this, which are based on mathematical knowledge and skills, are referred to as cognitive mathematical competencies. (PISA2009 Assessment Framework Key competencies in reading, mathematics and science, p84)

・the mathematical competencies that must be activated to connect the real world, in which the problems are generated, with mathematics, and thus to solve the problems.

(PISA2009 Assessment Framework Key competencies in reading, mathematics and science, p 90)

数学的な認知コンピテンシーは、8種類(思考と結論、議論、コミュニケーション、モデル形成、問題提案と解決、表現、記号化やコンピュータ言語の使用、道具(ITなど)の利用)ある((PISA2009 Assessment Framework Key competencies in reading, mathematics and science, p 106)。


In this framework, the term science literacy denotes an overarching competency comprising a set of three specific scientific competencies. 

As the basis for an international assessment of 15-year-old students, it seems reasonable, therefore, to ask: “What is it important for citizens to know, value, and be able to do in situations involving science and technology?”Answering this question establishes the basis for an assessment of students with regards to how their knowledge, values and abilities today relate to what they will need in the future. Central to the answer are the competencies

that lie at the heart of the PISA science assessment. These ask how well students:

• identify scientific issues

• explain phenomena scientifically

• use scientific evidence

These competencies require students to demonstrate, on the one hand, knowledge and cognitive abilities, and on the other, attitudes, values and motivations, as they meet and respond to science-related issues.

以上まとめれば2009年のPISAにおいて、科学リテラシーは「コンピテンシー」と「科学的知識」、そして「態度」の3要素を含んでいる。コンピテンシーは「科学的な問題を特定する」「現象を科学的に説明する」「科学的な証拠を用いる」を実現するときに必要となる複雑な認知過程を含む能力であって、「科学的知識」と科学的問題に対応するときの「態度」に依存するとしている。なお「科学的知識」には2種類あり科学の知識(knowledge of science)と、科学についての知識(knowledge about science)である。科学の知識は、物理学、化学、生物学や地球科学など、さらに技術に関する諸問題(たとえば概念として最適化、トレードオフ、リスクなども含む)などについての知識である。科学についての知識とは、科学的行為それ自体についての知識であり、科学の手法としての探究(すなわち科学者がどのように研究データを得るのか)と、その探究の結果として得られる解釈(すなわち、科学者が得られたデータをどのように用いて科学の最終目標である解釈を行うのか:この解釈には仮説やモデル形成、新たな手法形成、新たな問題設定などを含む)の2要素で構成されている(PISA2009 Assessment Framework Key competencies in reading, mathematics and science, p140)。